Statement No. 94
Public-Private and Public-Public Partnerships and Availability Payment Arrangements
The primary objective of this Statement is to improve financial reporting by addressing issues related to public-private and public-public partnership arrangements (PPPs). As used in this Statement, a PPP is an arrangement in which a government (the transferor) contracts with an operator (a governmental or nongovernmental entity) to provide public services by conveying control of the right to operate or use a nonfinancial asset, such as infrastructure or other capital asset (the underlying PPP asset), for a period of time in an exchange or exchange-like transaction. Some PPPs meet the definition of a service concession arrangement (SCA), which the Board defines in this Statement as a PPP in which (1) the operator collects and is compensated by fees from third parties; (2) the transferor determines or has the ability to modify or approve which services the operator is required to provide, to whom the operator is required to provide the services, and the prices or rates that can be charged for the services; and (3) the transferor is entitled to significant residual interest in the service utility of the underlying PPP asset at the end of the arrangement.
This Statement also provides guidance for accounting and financial reporting for availability payment arrangements (APAs). As defined in this Statement, an APA is an arrangement in which a government compensates an operator for services that may include designing, constructing, financing, maintaining, or operating an underlying nonfinancial asset for a period of time in an exchange or exchange-like transaction.
This Statement requires that PPPs that meet the definition of a lease apply the guidance in Statement No. 87, Leases, as amended, if existing assets of the transferor that are not required to be improved by the operator as part of the PPP arrangement are the only underlying PPP assets and the PPP does not meet the definition of an SCA. This Statement provides accounting and financial reporting requirements for all other PPPs: those that either (1) meet the definition of an SCA or (2) are not within the scope of Statement 87, as amended (as clarified by this Statement). The PPP term is defined as the period during which an operator has a noncancellable right to use an underlying PPP asset, plus, if applicable, certain periods if it is reasonably certain, based on all relevant factors, that the transferor or the operator either will exercise an option to extend the PPP or will not exercise an option to terminate the PPP.
A transferor generally should recognize an underlying PPP asset as an asset in financial statements prepared using the economic resources measurement focus. However, in the case of an underlying PPP asset that is not owned by the transferor or is not the underlying asset of an SCA, a transferor should recognize a receivable measured based on the operator’s estimated carrying value of the underlying PPP asset as of the expected date of the transfer in ownership. In addition, a transferor should recognize a receivable for installment payments, if any, to be received from the operator in relation to the PPP. Measurement of a receivable for installment payments should be at the present value of the payments expected to be received during the PPP term. A transferor also should recognize a deferred inflow of resources for the consideration received or to be received by the transferor as part of the PPP. Revenue should be recognized by a transferor in a systematic and rational manner over the PPP term.
This Statement requires a transferor to recognize a receivable for installment payments and a deferred inflow of resources to account for a PPP in financial statements prepared using the current financial resources measurement focus. Governmental fund revenue would be recognized in a systematic and rational manner over the PPP term.
This Statement also provides specific guidance in financial statements prepared using the economic resources measurement focus for a government that is an operator in a PPP that either (1) meets the definition of an SCA or (2) is not within the scope of Statement 87, as amended (as clarified in this Statement). An operator should report an intangible right-to-use asset related to an underlying PPP asset that either is owned by the transferor or is the underlying asset of an SCA. Measurement of the right-to-use asset should be the amount of consideration to be provided to the transferor, plus any payments made to the transferor at or before the commencement of the PPP term, and certain direct costs. For an underlying PPP asset that is not owned by the transferor and is not the underlying asset of an SCA, an operator should recognize a liability measured based on the estimated carrying value of the underlying PPP asset as of the expected date of the transfer in ownership. In addition, an operator should recognize a liability for installment payments, if any, to be made to the transferor in relation to the PPP. Measurement of a liability for installment payments should be at the present value of the payments expected to be made during the PPP term. An operator also should recognize a deferred outflow of resources for the consideration provided or to be provided to the transferor as part of the PPP. Expense should be recognized by an operator in a systematic and rational manner over the PPP term.
This Statement also requires a government to account for PPP and non-PPP components of a PPP as separate contracts. If a PPP involves multiple underlying assets, a transferor and an operator in certain cases should account for each underlying PPP asset as a separate PPP. To allocate the contract price to different components, a transferor and an operator should use contract prices for individual components as long as they do not appear to be unreasonable based on professional judgment or use professional judgment to determine their best estimate if there are no stated prices or if stated prices appear to be unreasonable. If determining the best estimate is not practicable, multiple components in a PPP should be accounted for as a single PPP.
This Statement also requires an amendment to a PPP to be considered a PPP modification, unless the operator’s right to use the underlying PPP asset decreases, in which case it should be considered a partial or full PPP termination. A PPP termination should be accounted for by a transferor by reducing, as applicable, any receivable for installment payments or any receivable related to the transfer of ownership of the underlying PPP asset and by reducing the related deferred inflow of resources. An operator should account for a termination by reducing the carrying value of the right-to-use asset and, as applicable, any liability for installment payments or liability to transfer ownership of the underlying PPP asset. A PPP modification that does not qualify as a separate PPP should be accounted for by remeasuring PPP assets and liabilities.
An APA that is related to designing, constructing, and financing a nonfinancial asset in which ownership of the asset transfers by the end of the contract should be accounted for by a government as a financed purchase of the underlying nonfinancial asset. This Statement requires a government that engaged in an APA that contains multiple components to recognize each component as a separate arrangement. An APA that is related to operating or maintaining a nonfinancial asset should be reported by a government as an outflow of resources in the period to which payments relate.
The requirements of this Statement are effective for fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2022, and all reporting periods thereafter. Earlier application is encouraged.
PPPs should be recognized and measured using the facts and circumstances that exist at the beginning of the period of implementation (or if applicable to earlier periods, the beginning of the earliest period restated).
How the Changes in This Statement Will Improve Financial Reporting
The requirements of this Statement will improve financial reporting by establishing the definitions of PPPs and APAs and providing uniform guidance on accounting and financial reporting for transactions that meet those definitions. That uniform guidance will provide more relevant and reliable information for financial statement users and create greater consistency in practice. This Statement will enhance the decision usefulness of a government’s financial statements by requiring governments to report assets and liabilities related to PPPs consistently and disclose important information about PPP transactions. The required disclosures will allow users to understand the scale and important aspects of a government’s PPPs and evaluate a government’s future obligations and assets resulting from PPPs.
How the Board Considered Costs and Benefits in the Development of This Statement
One of the principles guiding the Board’s setting of standards for accounting and financial reporting is the assessment of the expected benefits and perceived costs. The Board strives to determine that its standards address significant user needs and that the costs incurred through the application of its standards, compared with possible alternatives, are justified when compared to the expected overall public benefit. The Board believes that the expected benefits that will result from the information provided through implementation of this Statement—more relevant and comparable information about PPPs and APAs—are significant and justify the perceived costs of implementation and ongoing compliance. To reduce the costs associated with implementation, this Statement applies recognition, measurement, and remeasurement requirements for PPPs that are similar to the requirements for lease transactions in Statement 87, as amended.
Unless otherwise specified, pronouncements of the GASB apply to financial reports of all state and local governmental entities, including general purpose governments; public benefit corporations and authorities; public employee retirement systems; and public utilities, hospitals and other healthcare providers, and colleges and universities. Paragraph 3 discusses the applicability of this Statement.